• ISSN: 2148-2225 (online)

Ulaştırma ve Lojistik Kongreleri

alphanumeric journal

The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems

Assessing The Effects of Various Socio-Economic and Health Indicators on HDI Country Categories


Özlem Yorulmaz, Ph.D.


Abstract

The human development indicator (HDI) is based on three indicators: standard of living, life expectancy, and education level. Although being widely known and commonly used, the accuracy of the HDI has been criticized in the literature due to the inadequacy of its indicators. The present study uses 11 indicators to classify countries and compares the results by country groups against similar HDI ranked country groups. Furthermore, using multinomial logistic regression analysis, the effects of the 11 indicators on the country categories of HDI are investigated. The findings show that although the main cluster characteristics are similar to HDI categories, some differences exist in the classification of countries. Health indicators have a striking effect on low HDI countries relative to high HDI countries. FDI inflows and CO2 emissions per capita are significant indicators for low and middle HDI relative to high HDI countries. However women’s involvement in parliament and work are not distinctive or effective indicators.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Gender Effect, Health Indicators, Human Development Index, Human Development Indicator, Multidimensional Scaling, Multinomial Logistic Regression

Jel Classification: C38, O15

Çeşitli Sosyo-Ekonomik ve Sağlık Göstergelerinin İnsani Gelişme Endeksi Ülke Kategorileri Üzerindeki Etkilerinin Değerlendirilmesi


Öz

İnsani Gelişme Endeksi (İGE) yaşam standardı, ortalama yaşam beklentisi ve eğitim düzeyi göstergelerine dayalıdır. İGE’nin tanınırlığı ve yaygın kullanımına karşın, endeksin yetersiz faktörlerle açıklanmasından dolayı doğruluğu konusu literatürde tartışılmaktadır. Bu çalışma 11 göstergeyi dikkate alarak ülkeleri kümelemiş ve elde edilen kümeleri İGE ülke kategorileri ile karşılaştırmıştır. Ayrıca söz konusu 11 faktörün İGE ülke kategorileri üzerindeki etkisi multinomial lojistik regresyon analizi ile değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular ülke sınıflarının genel özelliklerinin İGE kategorileriyle benzerlik gösterdiğini ama bununla beraber sınıflamada bazı farklılıkların olduğunu göstermiştir. Sağlık göstergeleri, düşük İGE kategorisinde yer alan ülkelerde, çok yüksek İGE kategorinde yer alan ülkelere oranla oldukça etkilidir. Yüksek İGE kategorisinde yer alan ülkeler referans olarak alındığında, doğrudan yabancı yatırımlar ve kişi başına düşen CO2 emisyonu göstergelerinin, düşük ve orta İGE kategorisinde yer alan ülkelerde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı olduğu görülmüştür. Bununla beraber, kadınların parlamentodaki ve iş gücündeki katılımları etkili ve ayırt edici bir faktör değildir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Cinsiyet Etkisi, Kümeleme Analizi, Multinomial Lojistik Regresyon Analizi, Sağlık Göstergeleri, Çok Boyutlu Ölçekleme Analizi, İnsani Gelişmişlik Endeksi


Cite this article

Yorulmaz, Ö. (2016). Assessing The Effects of Various Socio-Economic and Health Indicators on HDI Country Categories. Alphanumeric Journal, 4(1), 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.17093/aj.2016.4.1.5000171922

References

  • Agresti A., (2002). Categorical Data Analysis,John Wiley &Sons,New Jersey.
  • Akinci S., Kaynak E., Atilgan E.,Aksoy S.(2007). Where does the logistic regression analysis stand in marketing literature?A comparison of the Market Positioning of
  • Prominent Journals, European Journal of Marketing. 41(5/6),537-567.
  • Antony GM, Visweswara Rao K, Balakrishna N.,(2001). Human Development Index: It’s Suitability for the Assessment of Health and Nutritional Status of Indian States, EPW,
  • Bombay, India, 36 ,p. 2976-9.
  • Barreiro I.C, (2006). Human Development assessment through the Human-Scale Development approach, Ph-D Thesis, Universitat Politecnica De Catalunya.
  • Bedir S., Yilmaz,V.M., (2015). CO2 Emissions and human development in OECD countries: granger causality analysis with a panel data approach, Eurasian Economic Review,p:1-14,doi 10.1007/s40822-015-0037-2
  • Boutayeb A., Serghini M.(2006),Heath indicators and human development in the Arab region, Int. J. Health Geogr,5(61), doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-5-61
  • Costa L., Rybski D., Kropp J.P., (2011). A Human Development Framework for CO2 Reductions. PLoS ONE 6(12): e29262. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029262
  • Fukuda-Parr, S.,(2001). Indicators of Human Development and Human Rights-Overlaps, Differences… and What about the Human Development Index? Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Vol. 18., 239-248
  • Hintze,NCSS User’s Guide I,NCSS, 2007 http://www.ncss.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/09/NCSSUG1.pdf
  • Ledoleter, J. (2013),Data Mining and Business Analytics with R, John Wiley &Sons, New Jersey.
  • Lee K., Park, S., Knoshnood B., Hsieh KL., Mittendorf R., (1997).Human development index as a predictor of infant and maternal mortality rates. J.Pediatr., 131(3), 430-3.
  • Mooi E., and Sarstedt M., (2011).A Coincise Guide to Market Research, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Njoh A.J., (2003). Urbanization and development in sub-Saharan Africa. Cities 20: 167–174
  • Öztürk, S.G., (2007). Classifying and predicting country types through development factors that influence economic, social, educational and health environments of countries,SWDI Proceedings papers S759, p.665-674.
  • Ranis, Stewart, Samman, (2006). Human Development: Beyond the Human Development Index, Journal of Human Development,7(3), p. 322-358.
  • Reiter S.L., Steensma H.K., (2010).Human Development and Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Counties: The Influence of FDI Policy and Corruption. World Development, 38(12), 1678-1691.
  • Saito M., (2003). Amartya Sen's Capability Approach to Education: A Critical Exploration. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 37: 17–33. doi: 10.1111/1467-9752.3701002
  • Self S., Grabowski R., (2003). How Effective is Public Health Expenditure in Improving Overall Health?A Cross-country Analysis, Applied Economics, 35,835-845.
  • Sen A., (1992). Inequality Reexamined, Russell Sage Foundation, New York.
  • Sharma B.,Gani A., (2004). "The Effects of Foreign Direct Investment on Human Development," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, 4(2), p. 1-20,
  • Sharma, S. D.,( 1997). Making the Human Development Index (HDI) gender-sensitive. Gender and Development Vol. 5, No 1., 60—61
  • Soubbotina T.P., Sheram K.,(2000). Beyond Economic Growth, The World Bank.
  • Srinivasan T.N., (1994). Human Development: A New Paradigm or Reinvention of the Wheel?, American Economic Review, 84(2), p. 238-243.
  • Stanton E. ,(2007). The Human Development Index: A history,working paper,University of Massachussetts Amherst, http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgiarticle=1101&context=peri_workingpapers
  • Tan P.N., Steinbach M., Kumar V., (2005).Introduction to Data Mining, Pearson, New York
  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Human Development Report (1990).
  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Human Development Report (2014).
  • Wolff H., Chong H. and Auffhammer M., (2010). Classification, detection and consequences of data error: evidence from the human development index’, http://faculty.washington.edu/hgwolff/EJOnlineWebVersionofHDI_ Wolffetal2010.pdf

Volume 4, Issue 1, 2016

2016.04.01.STAT.01

alphanumeric journal

Volume 4, Issue 1, 2016

Pages 1-10

Received: Jan. 27, 2016

Accepted: March 3, 2016

Published: April 12, 2016

Full Text [801.6 KB]

  • Share

2016 Yorulmaz, Ö.

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Contact Us

School of Transportation and Logistics, Istanbul University
Avcilar Campus 34320 Avcilar/Istanbul/TURKEY

Bahadır Fatih Yıldırım, Ph.D.
editor@alphanumericjournal.com
+ 90 (212) 473 70 00 - 19263

alphanumeric journal

alphanumeric journal has been publishing as "International Peer-Reviewed Journal" every six months since 2013. alphanumeric serves as a vehicle for researchers and practitioners in the field of quantitative methods, and is enabling a process of sharing in all fields related to the operations research, statistics, econometrics and management informations systems in order to enhance the quality on a globe scale.